«Greens» are vehicles that do not pollute or lower the load on the atmosphere and the environment as a whole. Today, in order to become a «green» car, one must use one of the technologies that provide high efficiency and low greenhouse gas emissions. It's worth noting that an environmentally friendly vehicle is not always economical or cleaner than a diesel or gasoline engine model. Ordinary DICs have also recently evolved rapidly, become more economical and cleaner. It is rather a common ideology in development, the desire to reduce the load on the ecosystem of the planet now or in the future.
Kinds of green cars. Their advantages and disadvantages
The level of technology development allows the development of environmental vehicles, some of which are widely used, others - remain in history in the form of ideas, operating prototypes or promising technologies:
- Electric cars with a permanent remote charge from the electromagnetic field generated by the equipment in the road cloth look attractive, but require the refinement of technology and incredible investments in infrastructure.
- The concept of power sources with ion exchange membranes and alternating electrolyte (replacing takes a few minutes at the gas station) promises to solve the main disadvantage of all electric cars: limited autonomy and long reload time. However, it has been around for ten years now that no further progress is made on the noble statements of developers and constant promises.
Today, there are only three concepts of "green" vehicles, which have high chances of widespread distribution in the near future. These are hydrogen cars, electric cars and hybrid vehicles.
There are two varieties of hydrogen vehicles: fuel cells and a conventional internal combustion engine. The first hydrogen is stored in fuel cells, and electricity is produced as a result of the chemical reaction and is used to feed the drive electric motors. In other hydrogen compressed stored in a tank. It is burned in the internal combustion engine that drives the car.
Hydrogen can be extracted in a "clean" way using renewable energy sources, its resources are inexhaustible. The by-product of the work of such cars is pure water.
Hydrogen is extremely volatile and explosive. Its production is still too energy-intensive and expensive. High pressure hydrogen storage technologies are underdeveloped, they do not provide a sufficient level of safety.
At the moment, it is the electric vehicles that are considered the most promising branch of motor transport development. The design of their drive is simple and reliable. Such machines work quietly, have good dynamics. Not the only important issue facing modern developers is finding a way to efficiently store a large amount of electricity and quickly recharge the batteries. The ability to generate electricity from various sources makes the electric vehicle one of the best in terms of adaptability to change.
Simplicity, reliability, high torque from low revs, quiet at work, no harmful emissions.
Modern batteries are still expensive and do not provide the necessary autonomy, that is, the ability to overcome large distances on one charge. The production and utilization of storage batteries are associated with large amounts of harmful emissions.
These vehicles use two or more power supplies or drive types, which can minimize the disadvantages of each one and take advantage of them. The most common type is the combination of a gasoline engine and an electric motor. Today, hybrid cars are the most widespread version of "green" vehicles, and their popularity continues to grow fast.
Hybrids are more affordable than electric cars thanks to small batteries. At the same time, they are able to overcome long distances without significant loss of time for recharging or refueling. Cars with a combined power / drive system are more dynamic and economical than analogous to the internal combustion engine.
Hybrids still produce harmful emissions, the cost of refueling per kilometer mileage is higher than that of an electric vehicle.
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